بررسی تاثیر پرایمینگ بذر بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد ارقام سویا در روش‌های خاک‌ورزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری/ گروه کشاورزی اکولوژیک، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد/ گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاوززی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران.

3 استاد/گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، خراسان رضوی، ایران.

4 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد/ گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

 جهت بررسی اثر پرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سه رقم سویا تحت تأثیر مدیریت‌های خاکورزی ، آزمایشی در مزرعه پژوهشی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران واقع در کرج  در تابستان و پاییز 1393 انجام شد. طرح آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خردشده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. به طوری که خاک‌ورزی (خاک‌ورزی متداول و بدون خاک‌ورزی)به عنوان عامل کرت اصلی و پرایمینگ (پرایمینگ با محلول 0.4 درصد نیترات پتاسیم و بدون اعمال پرایمینگ) و رقم های ویلیامز، L17 و نکادر ، به صورت فاکتوریل به عنوان عامل در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. صفات مورد بررسی در این مطالعه شامل تعداد بوته در واحد سطح، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت بود. نتایچ بیانگر تاثیرپذیری تراکم بوته و عملکرد دانه از سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی، رقم و پرایمینگ در سطح احتمال 1 درصد می‌باشد. مطالعه و بررسی اثر متقابل سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی و پرایمینگ بر تراکم بوته نشان داد که تراکم بوته تحت تاثیر سیستم خاک‌ورزی و پرایمینگ در سطح احتمال 1 درصد قرار گرفت به گونه‌ای که بیشترین تعداد بوته در زمان بدون انجام پرایمینگ و سیستم خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی با 25.33 بوته مشاهده شد. عملکرد دانه، اجزاء عملکرد و ارتفاع گیاه در تیمار‌های آزمایشی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه به طور معنی‌داری  با پرایمینگ بذر کاهش پیدا کرد (3.09  و 1.93 تن در هکتار به ترتیب برای شاهد(بدون پرایمینگ) و پرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم). رقم ویلیامز در اکثر صفات به جزء تعداد دانه در غلاف، ارتفاع  و شاخص برداشت نسبت به دیگر ارقام برتری داشت. رقم نکادر به دلیل برخورد دوره پر شدن دانه با دماهای پایین نتوانست به پتانسیل واقعی خود برسد. رقم ویلیامز در سیستم خاک‌ورزی متداول بیشترین عملکرد به مقدار 3559 کیلو گرم در هکتار تولید نمود. همچنین در خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی رقم L17 با تولید 2385 کیلوگرم در هکتار عملکرد بیشتری نسبت به سایر ارقام داشت ولی این تفاوت معنی‌دار نبود. در سیستم‌های خاکورزی حفاظتی با افزایش تراکم بوته در واحد سطح می‌توان کاهش عملکرد ناشی از فشردگی خاک را جبران نمود.

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